Partners for Development

Mission

Partners for Development’s mission is to work with vulnerable and underserved populations in developing countries to improve the quality of life. Our programs strive to meet the basic human needs through community-driven work in health, agriculture, veterinary health, and microcredit. PFD currently has programs in Bosnia & Herzegovina, Cambodia, Nigeria and Tanzania.

In Tanzania, PFD is working to create sustainable, cost-effective, and timesaving technologies for Tanzania’s energy needs through the Jatropha Agriculture & Nutrition Initiative (JANI), which is being implemented in the Northern, Central and Lake zones. PFD is promoting Jatropha as an answer to household energy needs, an income generator, and renewable fuel source that can reduce harmful emissions that result from indoor cooking practices.

Organization Type Non-Governmental Organization

Contact Information

Primary Contact
Mr. Mark Pommerville
pfdtanzaniamp@gmail.com
Secondary Contact
Ms. Eva Kasara
pfdtanzaniake@gmail.com
Address Plot No. 135 Pandit Street off Fire Road
P.O. Box 11605
Arusha, Tanzania

Tanzania
Website www.pfd.org
Phone
Fax
Calling/Fax Instructions 011 255 768 899 898

Our Focus

Primary Initiatives, Target Populations, and Scope of Work:

JANI is a three-year, multi-sector initiative, funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food for Progress Program. In areas with existing Jatropha, JANI is informing farmers of the potential value and uses of this resource, advising how production and yields can be increased, and providing support to small-scale farmer groups toward increased production. Emphasis is placed on optimizing the utilization of Jatropha in the areas where it is produced, followed by marketing of surplus production. The project's main objectives are to diversify and increase the household incomes of targeted small-holder farmer families through training in the cultivation and processing of Jatropha curcas, (commonly referred to as "Jatropha") and by creating market linkages with buyers of Jatropha seed and oil. JANI is targeted towards 35,750 beneficiaries in the Central, Lake and Northern zones of Tanzania.

The Jiko Mbono, developed in partnership with Kiwia & Lausten, a local company, is a top-lit up draft gasification (TLUD) cook stove. Various attempts to develop an efficient, low-cost Jatropha oil cook stove have been unsuccessful, and the cost of Jatropha oil is almost twice that of kerosene. Jiko Mbono is fueled by gasification of renewable biomass fuel pellets made from various agricultural residues available in abundance in Tanzania. Currently, Jiko Mbono burns fuel pellets made from a combination of Jatropha seed cake and rice husks, but is capable of burning fuel pellets made from a wide range of available agricultural residues. As demonstrated by testing of an earlier prototype at the Aprovecho Laboratory, the Jiko Mbono, when compared to the traditionally used three-stone fire, showed reductions in CO2 and particulate matter emissions by 44% and 28% respectively.

Under JANI, and in collaboration with Kiwia & Laustsen, PFD has committed to marketing, producing and distributing 6,000 stoves. However, medium-term goals beyond JANI include the scaling-up of stove production to 25,000 stoves annually, including the scaling-up of fuel pellet production to meet the increased demand; the three-year goal is to place 50,000 stoves in the targeted areas.

PFD's marketing strategy currently targets the Northern Area of Tanzania and aims to ensure the local manufacturing, distribution and use of Jiko Mbono, with 50,000 stoves placed in the next three years in peri-urban and urban households in 12 districts in the Arusha, Singida and Shinyanga regions where cooking fuel costs for wood and charcoal have drastically risen. Rural smallholder farmer households will also be targeted in those districts where there exists a scarcity of wood, which adds to increased cooking fuel costs. The Jiko Mbono will demonstrate positive impacts by reducing dependence on fireweood and charcoal use for cooking fuel and lessen exposure to harmful emissions.

Other PFD program objectives include:

1. To enable 50,000 households to meet domestic cooking needs with renewable energy alternatives to wood or charcoal.
2. To promote alternative, clean, renewable fuel sources.
3. To confirm positive impacts of the Jiko Mbono stove on the environment (including healthier emissions) and decreased household expenditures.

Fuels/Technologies: Biomass
Solar
Sectors of Experience: Agriculture
Environment
Health
Renewable Energy
Rural Development
Countries of Operation: Nigeria
Tanzania
Cambodia
United States
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Our Experience And Interest In The Four PCIA Central Focus Areas

Social/Cultural barriers to using traditional fuels and stoves:

The Jiko Mbono was developed in order to respond to local energy needs. The use of firewood and charcoal as the primary energy source in Tanzanian rural and urban households creates a dependency on a non-renewable, costly and health-harming energy supply that damages the environment. The average household consumes an estimated 4,745 kg of this mainly non-renewable woody biomass annually. The lack of appropriate primary energy is a major constraint to achieving many of the Millennium Development Goals such as ensuring environmental sustainability, promoting gender equity, improving child and maternal health, and increasing access to education. Women and children sacrifice many hours gathering household firewood, and if firewood is not locally available, precious household cash must be spent to purchase firewood or charcoal for cooking. Certain households in heavily deforested areas such as Singida Rural District must purchase bundles of wood brought in from distant locations. The situation is so extreme in parts of Shinyanga Region that cow dung is being used as cooking fuel. Rural women and children often spend up to five hours a day searching for firewood, which contributes to 70% of Tanzania’s deforestation. These energy options take a heavy toll on the environment.

Particulate emissions from cooking over the traditional (three stone) hearth using woody biomass as fuel contribute heavily to the high levels of respiratory disease prevalent in Tanzania. In particular, the use of firewood for indoor cooking has been shown to increase the health risks of women and children. A 2007 study in Bagamoyo, Tanzania shows a strong causal relationship between the inhalation of smoke particles and acute respiratory infection (ARI). Among those exposed to pollution from biomass fuel during cooking, 45% of household cooks (predominately women) and 67% of children under-five suffered from ARI. The strong relationship between the increased health risks of young children and women in households using biomass fuels compared to those using cleaner fuels demonstrates the need to develop healthier cook stoves.

Pilot demonstrations of Jiko Mbono confirmed a high level of interest in reducing dependency on firewood and charcoal as a source of cooking fuel in PFD’s areas of implementation. An earlier prototype of Jiko Mbono has been tested and certified for efficiency, emissions and safety by Aprovecho Research Center and has been tested for acceptability in rural Tanzanian households. It can also be expected to create a new local market/demand for Jatropha press cake and other agricultural residues that can be used in the production of renewable biomass fuel pellets. It is expected that many new enterprises will emerge with the wider promotion and distribution of the cook stove.

We have not yet experienced substantive cultural barriers, and recommendations from field tests are being taken into consideration as PFD seeks to improve the Jiko Mbono and provide the best possible product for the target population. PFD is also seeking to lower the cost of the stove to make it available to more households, which will be done as stove production is scaled up to more commercially viable levels. PFD hopes to improve the lives of women and children, both in terms of health and freeing up time they can devote to other income generating activities and childcare. This will lead to increased disposable household income for school fees, food and health related expenditures. PFD has hired an independent contractor to conduct follow-up surveys to assess the impact of JANI. As the objectives state, PFD also aims to confirm positive impacts of the Jiko Mbono cook stove on the environment (including healthier emissions) and decreased household expenditures.


Market development for improved cooking technologies:

The primary challenge for the adoption of the stoves will be the assurance of a reliable fuel supply for Jiko Mbono. This will be addressed through the establishment of several pellet production facilities located strategically near areas with an abundance of agricultural residues, such as Jatropha press cake and rice husks. Market opportunities will exist for entrepreneurs to become involved in the production of fuel pellets and the distribution of both stoves and fuel pellets. PFD is working to develop its market development and marketing strategy, which includes required training, technical support, financing and marketing support. PFD has already purchased and placed into production three pellet machines, each with an average production capacity of over 2 tons of pellets per day. PFD anticipates establishing 10-15 pellet production facilities over the next three years in targeted areas. In order to ensure widespread access and adoption of Jiko Mbono cook stoves, as well as the supply of related renewable energy fuel products, PFD has committed private sources of microfinance to Jiko Mbono consumers and small-scale renewable energy producers.


Technology standardization for cooking, heating and ventilation:

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Indoor air pollution exposure and health monitoring:

CO and particulate matter emissions will be measures and compared between adopting and non-adopting households. In addition, follow-up monitoring will be conducted among households that purchased the Jiko Mbono to understand usage rates and competing cook stoves and practices.

Relevant Publications or Studies

All publications can be found on our website: www.pfd.org

Our Contribution to the Partnership

Partners for Development Tanzania will participate by sharing knowledge, experiences, and best practices regarding the development, promotion and dissemination of new cook stove technologies. We will attend conferences, agricultural and small industries shows, share knowledge and best practices concerning the Jiko Mbono, share monitoring and evaluation studies that are done over the course of JANI and beyond and finally, look for opportunities where the stove could be promoted in other areas of the African continent and the world.